The Lemurs of Madagascar

The Lemurs of Madagascar

Ring-tailed Lemur

Madagascar is known across the globe for its lemurs, which resemble a mix between a cat, a squirrel, and a dog. These species are only found on the island and exhibit a variety of fascinating habits, like singing like a whale (the Indri) and sashaying across the sand like a ballet dancer (the sifaka). More information on these interesting animals may be found here.

History of the lemur:

The primary kind of primate found across the world, and the Haplorhini suborder is absent from Madagascar (monkeys, chimps, gorillas, and Homo sapiens). Instead, the lemurs, an older group of primates, have stepped in to fill their need. Lemurs are members of the Strepsirhini suborder, like bushbabies, lorises, and pottos are nocturnal, insectivorous primates with a tiny bodies, long snouts, and big eyes, similar to the original lemurs. Lemurs have an intriguing evolutionary history, and Madagascar’s isolation is the sole reason they still exist today.

Madagascar was once part of the supercontinent Gondwanaland, which was connected to the African mainland until about 160 million years ago (formed of Africa, South America, Australia, Antarctica, India, and Madagascar). Madagascar migrated away from Africa when Gondwanaland disintegrated. Around 60 million years ago, the first lemur-like primates arrived in mainland Africa and moved over to Madagascar shortly after.

The island continued to move eastward, and by the time monkeys arrived 17-23 million years ago, Madagascar was completely cut off from the rest of the world. Monkeys, being extremely clever and adaptable primates, pushed the lemur lineage to extinction everywhere in the globe (a few Strepsirhines, such as bushbabies, lorises, and pottos, managed to cling on by preserving their nocturnal, solitary, and insectivorous characteristics).

Madagascar’s lemurs, cut off from the rest of the world’s evolutionary changes, spread into the huge island’s various niches with little competition or predation. Lemurs may now be found in almost every environment in Madagascar, and they share some of the social and behavioral traits of monkeys (i.e., forming social groups, eating fruit and vegetation, and being active during the day).

Upper primates did not arrive in Madagascar until some 2,000 years ago when they learned to cross the high seas and landed on boats. Humans immediately set to work on Madagascar’s lemurs, decreasing the island’s species count by at least 15%. The biggest species suffered the most, and the Indri, which would have been dwarfed by the gorilla-sized species previously prevalent on the island, is now the largest remaining lemur. Almost all lemur species are currently endangered, owing to habitat degradation (deforestation) and poaching.

Lemurs in the present day

There are around 110 species of lemurs in Madagascar, divided into five groups and 14 taxa, with sizes ranging from the 25-gram pygmy mouse lemur to the Indri. All of these species are native to Madagascar (although two lemur species have been brought to Comoros), giving Madagascar the distinction of having the most primate species (Brazil, which has 77 species but only two endemic genera and no endemic families, is second). And new species are continually being discovered: 39 new species were described between 2000 and 2008.

The importance of Madagascar’s lemurs on a global scale

According to Russell Mittermeier in The Eighth Continent, Madagascar “is only one of 92 countries with wild primate populations, but it is responsible for 21 percent (14 of 65) of all primate genera and 36 percent (five of 14) of all primate families, making it the single highest priority” for primate conservation.


Non-scientists categorize lemurs according to whether they are active during the day or at night. Nocturnal lemurs are generally smaller and more solitary than diurnal lemurs. Brown lemurs and sifaka make grunts and curses, while mouse lemurs chirp and the Indri makes a strange, wailing call that has been compared as a mix between a police siren and the song of a humpback whale.

The Hood Lava Lizard

The Hood Lava Lizard

Galapagos is home to a plethora of lava lizards, several of which may be found in abundance. They resemble little iguanas and are often seen in huge numbers basking in the sun on top of lava rocks, earning the name “lava lizards.”

In the genus Microlophus, the Archipelago is home to seven different species of lava lizard, with a further 15 species located along the South American Pacific coast. Unless you know precisely where the lizard is, it isn’t easy to distinguish one from the other just by looking at them. An individual’s coloration may vary widely, from light gray to dark green, brown, or black. The males are usually more vividly colored, having yellow or gold spots or stripes all over their bodies. The females’ throats and heads may be red, depending on the species. This species has a prominent spinal crest along the ridge of its back, and the males tend to be bigger than those of his species’ females. Men have rougher skin, and their patterns are more pronounced.

The territory of a male lava lizard may be as large as 400 square meters, and it often spans that of multiple females. As a means of intimidation against rivals in his area, males would do a series of “push-ups” on manufactured structures such as fence posts or signs to frighten them away. Push-ups give the impression that the male is more prominent and robust, deterring other males from engaging in a physical battle. A push-up contest may break out if the invader believes he is stronger and larger than the current male leader. When everything else fails, tail slaps or biting may be the only option left.

Fecundity increases throughout the warmer months and females are sexually mature in as little as nine months following their first period. Adult males may take up to three years longer. Females lay four to six tiny eggs in a dirt burrow, each about the size of a pea. Three months pass from the time the eggs are laid until they hatch.

Throughout the Galapagos Islands
What islands have lava lizards? All islands except Genovesa, Darwin, and Wolf have lava lizards. Six additional species are named for the islands where they may be found, such as the Galapagos lava lizard, which can be found on all ten central islands. Their natural habitat is the lowlands, particularly near the coast, where they coexist with sunbathing marine iguanas.

What time of year can you view them? You can see lava lizards all year round. They’re most active in the morning and evening.

Several snake, scorpion, spider, and hawk species live in the area, and lava lizard cannibalism is common. The species’ conservation status is not in imminent jeopardy, according to the data. Global warming, El Nio occurrences, and human-caused habitat loss threaten this and all other Galapagos species.

Even though the IUCN Red List classifies certain lava lizard species as endangered, no particular conservation strategies exist in Galapagos to save these species. They are, however, usually protected by the Galapagos National Park.

The Dancing Lemurs (Verreaux’s Sifakas) of Madagascar

The Dancing Lemurs (Verreaux’s Sifakas) of Madagascar

Madagascar, the Island of endemics, holds the record of endemic species. Of course, Lemurs are the most famous animals that inhabit the Island, and most travelers search for them during a Madagascar Safari.

Of the 101 species and subspecies of Lemurs that exist (The number is approximated since scientists are still debating the taxonomy of the animal), one that most visitors expect to see in the wild during a Madagascar tour is the Verreaux’s Sifaka Lemur, also known as “dancing lemur.” They obtain this name thanks to how they move on the earth, a very choreographed way of “walking,” which is quite amusing to observe.

Dancing Lemurs Details 

Their range includes the wet tropical rainforests to the dry spiny forests of Madagascar.

The Verreaux’s Sifaka Lemur is medium in size compared to other lemurs species and is the only one with hands and feet slightly webbed.

Their white body fur, black face, and big eyes make them quite attractive. They have a very long tail, up to 24 inches (longer than their body size!), which helps balance when leaping from tree to tree and when “dancing” on the ground.

They are about 18 inches in height when they reach maturity and can weigh from 7 to 8 pounds, with the males usually being larger than the females. They have dental differences that set them apart from other species of Lemurs.

The Verreaux’s Sifaka Lemur lives in mixed groups of up to 12 individuals; 2 or 3 males, 2 or 3 females, and their offsprings.

The female is sexually mature around the age of 3 and can have 1 (most of the time) to 2 babies per litter. The young hold on to the mother’s belly for 3 to 4 weeks and then ride on her back. It is entirely independent at seven months. Their average lifespan is 18 years.

They usually feed themselves twice a day, once in the early morning and again in the late afternoon. They will rest during the remains of the day. They mainly eat leaves and various items, including twigs, bark, nuts, and fruits.

A Vulnerable Species

The beautiful Verreaux’s Sifaka Lemur is a primate that has a grim future. Nowadays, they are categorized as vulnerable because of the rapid destruction of their natural habitat that represents the primary threat to them and all the lemurs in Madagascar. An excellent way to support this and other endangered species of Madagascar is visiting the Island. New Paths Expeditions includes the national parks and private reserves that have proven their conservation efforts success in its Madagascar Expeditions.

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White-eared jacamar

White-eared jacamar

The White-eared Jacamar is the geographically more widespread of the two species that comprise the genus Galbalcyrhynchus, which is restricted to western Amazonia. The other species, the Purus Jacamar (Galbalcyrhynchus purusianus), substitutes the White-eared Jacamar to the south of its range. As its name suggests, the White-eared Jacamar’s most striking plumage feature is the conspicuous white ear coverts patch, which instantly distinguishes the present species from its only congeneric. Both species are otherwise chunky-bodied, broad-winged, and short-tailed jacamars, with overall reddish-chestnut plumage.

The White-eared Jacamar ranges from southern Colombia south to northeast Peru and east through western Brazil, at least as far as the confluence of the Rio Solimões with the Rio Purus. It inhabits lowland primary forest, both on land and seasonally flooded areas. It is usually easily seen due to its liking for clearings and other semi-open areas, often beside rivers and streams.